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Kyle Anthony Figueroa studied on exchange during the spring 2015 semester.

Home University: Anglia Ruskin University, UK Field of Study: Social Policy Favourite thing about Umeå University: The people Favourite Swedish word or custom : Fika!! Three words to summarise your time in Umeå: Beauty, Serenity, Welcoming

Why did you choose to study at Umeå University?

I chose to study at Umea because of recommendations by students from Umea University, which I met at my home university. These students were also taking part in the Erasmus Exchange. They spoke so highly of Umea; from its education and student life to its culture and welcoming atmosphere. I knew that when I had the opportunity to study abroad, Umea would be my first and only selection.

What do you like most about your courses?

I enjoyed all of my courses here at Umea. I really appreciated the high teaching standards, patience, and dedication of the lecturers. Furthermore, I loved the option of engaging in a more eclectic set of courses than at my home university, including psychology, and business, as well as an introductory Swedish language course.

What do you do when you are not studying?

I tend to spend the majority of my leisure time while in Umea at IKSU. Whether taking part in fitness classes, or just general training, I always find a friend or classmate to participate with me. Additionally, I spend a great deal of time having Fika with many of my Swedish and international friends.

What has been your most memorable moment so far?

My most memorable moment has surely been my participation in the Spring Prom. The combination of culture, tradition, and elegant beauty was captivating; it really felt like a fairy tale. I highly recommend all international students to participate during their exchange.

What is your impression of Umeå and the surrounding areas?

While the city itself is rather small, it holds everything you might need. Its surrounding areas are beautiful! Snow-tipped pine and white birch trees littered the landscape throughout winter, creating a genuine wonderland.

What do you find as the biggest cultural difference, both socially and educationally, from your country with Sweden?

The biggest cultural difference is surely the welcoming nature of the Swedish people. While my home country does provide a feeling of safety, Sweden has always felt more than just safe; it felt like home. Regarding education, the biggest difference has been the work-load, in addition to the semester and course structural differences, the required amount of work in Umea was far more intensive than my home university.

What would you say or what advice would you give to another international student thinking of attending Umeå University?

I would recommend their exchange as highly as possible; it has truly been a life changing experience. The joy, wonder, beauty, and knowledge I've gained throughout my journey here will surely prove to be an invaluable asset which I will carry with me for years. I'm grateful and humbled by this experience and I know that after they take advantage of this opportunity, they will be to.

Kyle Anthony Figueroa
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Financing the creation and preservation of affordable housing in Illinois.

is essential to the economic prosperity of communities around Illinois. IHDA facilitates housing-related programs that help create a positive impact for local units of government and the people who live in their communities.

is essential to the overall economic prosperity of Illinois. IHDA is an economic engine, providing liquidity to Illinoisans to fuel the home buying process.

is possible when affordable housing is available to the people who need it most. IHDA works with Developers who build and rehabilitate safe and affordable rental housing throughout the state.

becomes a reality when the industry professionals are all working together. IHDA partners with Lenders Realtors to ensure the residents of Illinois are aware of the programs to help make their housing safe and affordable.

is essential to the overall economic prosperity of Illinois. IHDA is an economic engine, providing liquidity to Illinoisans to fuel the home buying process.

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Permanent Supportive Housing Development Program Update

IHDA is currently accepting applications under Round V of the Permanent Supportive Housing Development Program. Applications are due byJuly 20, 2018 at 5:00 p.m. This announcement is provided as an update to information found on Page 8 of the Request for Applications (“RFA”) . If you have any question regarding this announcement, please contact Sam Mordka at 312.836.7346.

By: IHDA | Read More

IHDA Annual Report Fiscal Year 2017

We are pleased to announce the release of our Fiscal Year 2017 Annual Report . 2017 marks the 50th anniversary of the creation of IHDA by the Illinois Legislature. This Annual Report takes a look back at milestones throughout our history as we financed over 255,000 units of affordable housing to support healthy, economically integrated communities throughout the state.

By: IHDA | Read More

The Illinois Hardest Hit Program

Are you among the hardest hit and need help paying your mortgage? Help is available through the Illinois Hardest Hit program . Homeowners who have experienced a 15% reduction in income due to a hardship may be eligible for up to $35,000 in reinstatement and/or ongoing monthly mortgage assistance while working to regain financial stability.

Citation information in Europe Pubmed Central

HCV antibody screening of 624,910 blood donations resulted in 3,832 samples being referred for confirmation. All were tested by RIBA-3 with 2,710 negative, 945 indeterminate and 177 positive results. HCV RNA was detected by PCR in an average of 69.5% of RIBA-3 positives (4 bands 84.1%; 3 bands 74.1%; 2 bands 34.1%) and only 0.53% of RIBA-3 indeterminates. Eighty-four percent of samples with a total RIBA-3 band intensity score (maximum 16) of > or = 8 were PCR positive compared with only 22% of those with a score of < 8. Total mean band intensities for HCV genotype 1 samples (n = 65) were 13.2, genotype 2 (n = 17) 11.4 and genotype 3 (n = 65) 11.2 with type 1 samples showing greater reactivity with c100 and c33 antibodies. No PCR positive type 1 samples were found with RIBA-3 total band scores less than 8, no PCR positive type 2 samples less than 6, whilst PCR positive type 3 samples were found with scores as low as 2. NS5 indeterminates were the most common (40.2%) single band pattern but yielded no PCR positive samples, followed by c33 (23.3%) with one PCR positive and c100 (20.2%) with one PCR positive whilst c22 indeterminates were least common (16.3%) but included three PCR positive donors. All five RIBA-3 indeterminate PCR positive donors were type 3.

Dow BC , Munro H , Buchanan I , Follett EA , Davidson F , Yap PL , Simmonds P . 1996. Third-generation recombinant immunoblot assay: comparison of reactivities according to hepatitis C virus genotype. Transfusion , 36 (6), pp. 547-551. | Show Abstract | Read more

BACKGROUND: Recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA) is widely used as a supplemental test in hepatitis C virus (HCV) confirmatory algorithms. As this assay is based on HCV type 1, its performance was examined with the common European HCV genotypes (1, 2, and 3). STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A study was performed to retest in third-generation RIBA (RIBA-3) all 146 second-generation RIBA (RIBA-2)-positive polymerase chain reaction-positive samples detected by second-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and having known HCV genotypes (74 HCV type 1, 21 type 2, 51 type 3). RIBA band intensities were examined according to HCV genotype. An additional 90 RIBA-3-confirmed PCR-positive samples (47 HCV type 1, 5 type 2, 38 type 3) detected by third-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were also examined. RESULTS: In the first group of 146 samples, the RIBA-3 NS4 (c100p) band showed a marked improvement in sensitivity for the detection of HCV types 2 and 3 over that of the c100 antigen of RIBA-2, but the mean band intensities of HCV types 2 and 3 remained significantly lower than those of type 1. Improved sensitivity of the NS3 band of RIBA-3 to HCV type 3 was also apparent, but, again, the mean band intensity measured was lower for type 3 than for either type 1 or type 2. The c22 band of RIBA-2 and RIBA-3 exhibited equal sensitivity for all HCV genotypes. These differences were also apparent when RIBA-3 was used in conjunction with third-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. CONCLUSION: The current RIBA-3 lacks sensitivity to the NS4 antibody for HCV types 2 and 3. The incorporation of type-specific components to other genotypes for NS4 (and NS3) antigens should be considered by the manufacturers.

Citation information in Europe Pubmed Central

Cited:

181

Scopus

Objective: To 1) verify the validity of a new line probe assay for hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotyping and 2) determine the distribution of HCV genotypes and the association between HCV genotype and clinical variables in patients with chronic hepatitis C seen in tertiary referral centers in the United States. Design: Retrospective cross-sectional analysis. Patients: 438 patients with chronic hepatitis C from 10 tertiary referral centers. Measurements: The validity of the line probe assay was first verified against a panel of serum specimens that had previously been characterized by six different HCV genotyping methods. Specimens from all 438 patients were then genotyped using this line probe assay. The associations between HCV genotype and clinical variables were examined using analysis of variance. Pairwise testing was used when the F test showed a statistically significant difference. Nonparametric alternatives were used for variables for which normality could not be assumed. Results: The line probe assay was quick and reproducible, and it showed good concordance with other tests. In our sample, the proportions of patients with HCV types 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 71.5%, 13.5%, 5.5%, and 1.1%, respectively. Subtypes 1a and 1b were seen in approximately equal proportions of patients with HCV type 1. Mixed infection was detected in 3.7% of specimens, and 4.8% of specimens either had negative results on polymerase chain reaction or could not be typed. A higher proportion of patients with HCV type 1 than of patients with HCV-type 1 had acquired HCV through transfusion of blood products (50% compared with 25%; P < 0.001). Patients with HCV type 1 also had a longer estimated duration of infection compared with patients with HCV type 3 (P = 0.004) and type 4 (P = 0.049). Disease activity did not differ among patients infected with HCV types 1, 2, or 3. Levels of viremia were similar in patients with HCV types 1, 2, or 3, but patients with HCV type 4 had a lower level of viremia than did patients with HCV type 1 (P = 0.047). Conclusions: The line probe assay can be used in patients with chronic HCV infection in the United States. In patients with chronic hepatitis C referred to tertiary centers in the United States, type 1 is the most common HCV genotype. Disease activity and viremia levels do not differ among patients chronically infected with HCV types 1, 2, or 3.

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